ELSTAT announced the results of the ad hoc survey on the labour market situation of migrants and their immediate descendants (Labour Force Survey ad hoc module 2014). The survey was conducted during the 2nd quarter of 2014 together with the Labour Force Survey.
The main targets of the survey were to estimate the number of migrants and their immediate descendants; investigate the social, economic, educational and migration history background of migrants; analyse the differences between the labour market situation of migrants and their immediate descendants and that of natives; identify the main obstacles faced by migrants and their descendants in participating in the labour market.
The target population of the survey was persons aged 15 – 64 years. The response rate of the ad hoc survey was 91.2%. For the purposes of the survey the persons that were born abroad or had, at least, one parent born abroad were considered as persons with migrant background.
Number of migrants and migrant background: 9.2% of all the persons aged 15 – 64 years who responded to the survey stated that were born abroad. The percentage of persons born in Greece but having, at least, one parent born abroad amounts to 1.9%.
As regards the breakdown of data by gender, the proportion of women is slightly higher among persons with a migrant background. The differences in the age structure of the two groups (persons with migrant background and natives) are bigger: the share of persons aged 15-35 is bigger for persons with a migrant background and specifically for persons who were born abroad or whose, at least, one parent was born abroad.
Furthermore, on the basis of available survey data, it is concluded that the average age of persons with a migrant background is considerably lower than the average age of natives: 37.4 and 40.6 years, respectively.
It seems that the migrant background is negatively correlated with the level of educational attainment: persons with a migrant background tend to have lower educational level than persons born in Greece. For example, the highest percentage of tertiary education graduates and the lowest percentage of primary and secondary education graduates are observed among persons who are born in Greece and have both parents born in Greece, while the contrary is recorded for persons who are born abroad and have both parents born abroad.
There are also important differences concerning the employment status. Unemployment rate is much lower for persons who are born in Greece and have both parents born in Greece.
Only 1.3% of persons aged 15-64 reported having worked abroad during the last 10 years. The majority of persons that have worked abroad reported that they worked in an EU country or in another non-EU European country.
10.8% of the respondents that were born abroad reported the Greek language as their mother tongue, while the majority (43.6%) reported having a very good command of the Greek language. A significantly high percentage is recorded for persons born in non-EU European countries. A lower degree of command of the Greek language is observed for persons born in Asia. The highest degree of command of the Greek language is observed among persons aged 15-24 years old. Finally, it appears that there is no significant correlation between employment status and the degree of command of speaking the Greek language.
15.6% of the persons aged 15-64 who were born abroad and whose mother tongue is not Greek participated in Greek language courses. The majority of them are young persons and persons that were born in non-EU European countries.
The most frequently reported reason for migrating to Greece is “job search” (48.0%). “Family reasons” is the second most frequently reported reason of migration (27.6%). The reasons vary significantly depending on gender and age groups: work-related reasons are reported mainly by men and older age groups of respondents, while family reasons are reported more often by women and younger age groups.
On the basis of the survey results, the methods used by employed persons to find their current job vary significantly depending on the migrant background of the respondents. 58.3% of the respondents who were born abroad and whose both parents were born abroad report having found their current job through relatives or friends, while the corresponding percentage for persons born in Greece having their parents born in Greece is 29.4%.
11.6% of the surveyed persons believe that they are overqualified for their current job. This percentage is higher for persons who are born abroad and have their parents born abroad (15.0%) and in particular for tertiary education graduates (46.1%).
Discrimination due to origin, religion or social background is the most frequently reported obstacle by the respondents with a migrant background to find a suitable job (37.0%). Insufficient knowledge of the Greek language is the second most frequently reported obstacle (27.2%), followed by limitations due to citizenship or residence permit (17.8%). In many cases, the reported obstacles vary among the different respondents groups. For example, non-recognition of qualifications is the obstacle reported most frequently by tertiary education graduates and discrimination due to origin, religion or social background is the obstacle most frequently reported by persons aged 25-34 years. The category “other”, reported more frequently by all groups of respondents, is linked to the economic crisis.